Summary 10 Cylindrospermopsis is a cyanobacteria genus that is occasionally found in freshwater phytoplankton assemblages. This information is expected to improve our understanding of the phylogeography of this species. Increased production of cylindrospermopsin is associated with long periods of growth in high light intensity conditions (Dyble et al. Hydrobiologia 506-50:169-174. Mutation Research 472(1-2):155-161. 2004). Toxicon 47(5):497-509. There is also accumulating evidence that cylindrospermopsin is carcinogenic (Falconer and Humpage 2001). Shafik, H.M., L. Voros, P. Sprober, M. Presing, and A.W. 2006). Salinity effects on growth, photosynthetic parameters, and nitrogenase activity in estuarine planktonic cyanobacteria. Although the morphological variability in C. raciborskii has been well-documented, only few comparative genomics studies of this species are available ( Stucken et al., 2010 ; Sinha et al., 2014 ). 2012). Rothhaupt, K.O. Kovacs. 2007, Stewart et al. 2000; Shen et al. 2007. Potential: A history of human health and water quality impacts elsewhere in the world under conditions similar to those found in the Great Lakes warrants significant concern, resulting in the assessment of this species as likely to have moderate socioeconomic impact. Norton. 2004, Saker and Eagleshame 1999, White et al. Freshwater Biology 50(2):345-352. 2007, Xie et al. In warm, nutrient-rich lakes it can form dense blooms. 1999b. References Expert(s): Expert: Notes: ... there are a large number of old names that have not been validated for use since the 1980 cut-off for nomenclature. 1997, McGregor and Fabbro 2000, Ramberg 1987, Saker and Neilan 2001, Tucci and Sant’Anna 2003). Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CS-505: Taxonomy navigation › Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. 2002). Growth and phosphate uptake kinetics of the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanophyceae) in throughflow cultures. Da Silva, C.A., S. Train, and L.C. Structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton community downstream and upstream Corumba reservoir, Caldas Novas, state of Goias, Brazil. 2002, Chellappa and Costa 2003, Da Silva et al. Toxicity of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii to Daphnia magna. Morphological changes during akinete germination in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria). 1998. Cylindrospermopsin is an alkaloid cyanotoxin produced by several freshwater genera, including Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Lyngbya, Umezakia, and RaphidiopsisIt is found worldwide in surface freshwaters and is a potential toxicant in drinking water supplies for a large human populace, as well as animals (Guzman-Guillen et al., 2013a). analysis on five C. raciborskii strains: CS-505, CS-506, CS-508, CS-509 and MVCC14, in addition to R. brookii D9 to identify common genes. The occurrence of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Constance Lake: an exotic cyanoprokaryote new to Canada. 2003. 2006). C. raciborskii may also cause phytoplankton diversity to decrease, as has been observed in Lake Jesup, Florida (Dobberfuhl 2003) and a pond in Hungary (Borics et al. In Constance Lake, Ontario, C. raciborskii blooms appear to be controlled by water temperature and not nutrients (Hamilton et al. Nogueira, I.C.G., M.L. Gender: feminine . Duivenvoorden. and Subbar. Saker, J.H. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a potentially toxic cyanobacterium which has become increasingly prominent in algal blooms throughout the USA. Cattle mortality attributed to the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in an outback region of North Queensland. Proposed as: comb. 1998). These toxins have been responsible for fish kills in a reservoir in Brazil and cattle deaths in Australia (De Souza et al. Sporadic toxicity may be the result of gene deletion events, the horizontal transfer of toxin biosynthesis gene clusters, or other genomic variables, yet the evolutionary drivers for cyanotoxin production remain a mystery. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskiiis a cyanobacterial species extensively studied for its toxicity, bloom formation and invasiveness potential, which have consequences to public and environmental health. Upon germination, akinetes elongate, split open, and the germling cells that emerge eventually become trichomes (Moore et al. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information. 2007. Elucidating the factors influencing the biodegradation of cylindrospermopsin in drinking water sources. The effect of temperature on growth and cylindrospermopsin content of seven isolates of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanophyceae) from water bodies in northern Australia. Torokne, and G.A. 2005) and artificially mixed reservoirs (Burford et al. 2002, Saker et al. Hydrobiologia 506-509:175-180. Environmental Toxicology 19(5):453-459. Norton, and R.D. Ramberg, L. 1987. 2001. The installation of a destratification mechanism was attempted in a reservoir in Australia. Taxonomic Serial No. Taft. Carvalho, and A.C. Truzzi. Vasconcelos. 2004. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 76(1):67-72. 2018. The name cyanobacteria comes from the color of the bacteria. Taft, C.E., and C.W. Conroy, J.D., E.L. Quinlan, D.D. Istvanovics, V., H.M. Shafik, M. Presing, and S. Juhos. Profile of a bloom of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenaya and Subba Raju in the Fitzroy River in tropical central Queensland. This is the first strain isolated from a shallow freshwater pond in South Korea. 2007). 2011. In tropical or subtropical waters, this species is perennial and akinetes rarely develop (Padisak 2003). Westrick, J.A., D.C. Szlang, B.J. 1999b, Thomas et al. Among the notable species recognized by Walt Butler at Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii at a density of 53 cells per milliliter at Marylands long-term water quality monitoring station on the Sassafras River collected September 14, and 13,250 cells per milliliter at the Decoursey Road Bridge site on the Transquaking River collected September 12. Cylindrospermopsin (abbreviated to CYN, or CYL) is a cyanotoxin produced by a variety of freshwater cyanobacteria. Environmental Toxicology 16(5):413-421. Many of these are effectively unidentifiable and cannot be properly placed in synonymy. 2003. Humpage, A.R., M. Fenech, P. Thomas, and I.R. Preliminary evidence for in vivo tumour initiation by oral administration of extracts of the blue-green alga Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii containing the toxin cylindrospermopsin. 2005. 2004, Hamilton et al. 1998, Saker et al. Note: Check state/provincial and local regulations for the most up-to-date information regarding permits for control methods. Identification of genes implicated in toxin production in the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Genetic proﬁles of C. raciborskii were examined in 19 cultured isolates Saker, S. Pflugmacher, C. Wiegand, and V.M. 2003. Cattle mortality attributed to the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in an outback region of North Queensland. Saxitoxins can be absorbed by activated carbons that have a large fraction of the pores that are smaller than 1 nm (Westrick 2010). 2000. Environmental Toxicology 21(4, Sp. The influence of environmental conditions and hydrologic connectivity on cyanobacteria assemblages in two drowned river mouth lakes. Climate change may be contributing to the expansion of this species in temperate latitudes (Briand et al. Genetic characterization of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) isolated from diverse geographic origins based on nifH and cpcBA-IGS nucleotide sequence analysis. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Phycologia 44(1):17-25. Seena. 1999. Codd. Anabaena raciborskii Woloszynska; Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya & Subba Raju 1972 : Former name: Formerly identified as Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, re-named based on Aguilera et al. Realized: Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is found in relatively low abundances throughout the Great Lakes and as a result these populations do not yet exhibit the negative socio-economic impacts seen in other locations around the world with larger populations of C. raciborskii. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a toxic-bloom-forming cyanobacterium that is commonly found in tropical to subtropical climatic regions worldwide, but it is also recognized as a common component of cyanobacterial communities in temperate climates. The accumulation of cylindrospermopsin from the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in tissues of the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Membrane effects of toxins isolated from a cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsin raciborskii, on identified molluscan neurons. 2005). Freshwater Biology 43(2):257-275. Varied diazotrophies, morphologies, and toxicities of genetically similar isolates of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanophyceae) from Northern Australia. Life. The draft genome sequence of Raphidiopsis ( Cylindrospermopsis ) raciborskii strain GIHE 2018, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing and potentially harmful cyanobacterium, is reported here. 2008. The relatively high phosphorus uptake affinity and storage capacity confer a competitive advantage upon this species both in deep lakes with nutrient stratification as well as in lakes lacking such nutrient gradation (Istvanovics et al. A report of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and other cyanobacteria in the water reservoirs of power plants in Ukraine ... With recent reports of its common occurrencein west-ern parts of Poland, in a single lake in Lithuania (Kokocinski et al. Strains of C. raciborskii that produce toxins can severely impact water quality both in drinking water for humans and as a result of bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms (Bernard et al. After drinking the contaminated water, 141 people were hospitalized with hepatoenteritis and other symptoms affecting kidneys, adrenal glands, small intestine, lungs, thymus, and heart (Bernard et al. 2003). Dermatology 6(5):1-12. 2004. 2006. 2001. Effects of light intensity on cylindrospermopsin production in the cyanobacterial HAB species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. 2003. Journal of Great Lakes Research 32:645-652. Saker, M.L. Saker, M.L., J.S. Such blooms also create a risk of the toxin getting into the human food market if not detected soon enough (Saker and Eaglesham 1999). Control Biological There are no known organisms that can degrade cylindrospermopsin. Dyble, J., H.W. Donovan, C.J., J.C. Ku, M.A. Seasonal successions and trophic relations between phytoplankton, zooplankton, ciliate and bacteria in a hypertrophic shallow lake in Vienna, Austria. Other Names Legacy ER Project ID 48662 . 2005). Mayer, J., M.T. Category: Species. Many of these are effectively unidentifiable and cannot be properly placed in synonymy. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality 13(1):73-81. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33: 519-535. Neilan. Griffiths. In Brazil the strains of C. raciborskii are reported to produce only saxitoxins (STX) and their effect on fish parasites has not be …. Brookes. Seena. Algal Taxonomy and Ecology Inc., Winnipeg, Manitoba. Toxicity of cylindrospermopsin to the brine shrimp Artemia salina: comparisons with protein synthesis inhibitors and microcystins. Kovacs, and S.Herodek. Seena. Rediske, J. O’Keefe, J. Dyble, Y. Hong, and D. Steinman. Cylindrospermopsis in Lake Erie: Testing its association with other cyanobacterial genera and major limnological parameters. Common name (s): blue-green alga. 2001. Saker, M.L., and D.J. Padisak, J. EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 0.9. Shaw, G.K. Eaglesham, L. Ho, and J.D. Factors affecting growth and cell composition of cyanoprokaryote Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya and Subba Raju. Lake and Reservoir Management 19(4):341-348. and Subbar. 1996. Genetic diversity of Cylindrospermopsis strains (Cyanobacteria) isolated from four continents. This often results in bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin within the organisms intended for harvest and the economic loss of infected organisms. Type species: Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska 1912) Seenayya and Subba Raju … Some rotifers and cladocerans exhibit reduced feeding rates, growth rates, or growth potential in the presence of C. raciborskii (Hawkins and Lampert 1989, Nogueira et al. Cylindrospermopsin has been found to bioaccumulate in certain species of mollusks, crayfish, and snails; in some cases this exposure was toxic (Kiss et al. Name: Cylindrospermopsis Seenayya and Subba Raju 1972. 1971. In Mona Lake, within the Lake Michigan basin, their tube-shaped cells contain groups of scattered gas vesicles and are divided by barely visible walls (Hong et al. This blue-green alga produces a toxin, cylindrospermopsin, which can kill fish and cattle, and produce skin reactions, liver damage, and death in humans. 2006, Bormans et al. 2003. When and if such names are properly placed in the modern literature they can be moved, as needed, in ITIS. Kiss, T., A. Vehovszky, L. Hiripi, A. Kovacs, and L. Voros. 2002, Gugger et al. Etymology: N.L. 1999a. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37: 470-479. and Subbar. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a long thin alga with a very long name. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a long thin alga with a very long name. Climate change affects timing and size of populations of an invasive cyanobacterium in temperate regions. The freshwater cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wołoszyńska) Seenayya and Subba Raju is a common species in lakes and reservoirs around the world. 2005. 2008). Some special morphological features of Cylindrospermopsin raciborskii in batch and continuous cultures. Kling, H. J. 1985, Kiss et al. 2002; Stewart et al. Jackson, and I.R. The name Rhaphidiopsis was retained as the genus name since it has nomenclatural priority over the name Cylindrospermopsis. Occurrence of blooms of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya and Subba Raju in a north Queensland domestic water supply. Burford, and J.R. Romero. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. 2006, Padisak 2003). 2008, Ho et al. There is little or no evidence to support that Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii has significant beneficial effects in the Great Lakes. 2006, Bowling 1994, Briand et al. Marine and Freshwater Research 47:685-694. 2004, Saker and Eagleshame 1999, White et al. 2002. † Populations may not be currently present. Duivenvoorden, L.D. ... Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. to Advanced Search and Report. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. The optimum temperature for growth is 25–30°C, although growth can occur between 15°C and 35°C, depending on the strain. It is found worldwide in surface freshwaters (de la Cruz et al., 2013). Toxicon 40(8):1115-1120. 2006, Xie et al. Genetic similarities exist between strains of C. raciborskii from Australia and Europe, Africa and Australia, and North and South America (Dyble et al. First report of neurotoxic effect of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the motility … GLERL 4840 S. State Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48108-9719 (734) 741-2235 Tucci, A., and C.L. Akinete formation may be triggered by cold temperatures or large temperature fluctuations, and requires high levels of reactive phosphorus (Moore et al. This is because of its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, sequester phosphorous, and move throughout the water column (Borics et al. Griffiths. Hydrobiologia 506-509:163-167. Hamilton, P.B., L.M. Great Lakes region nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state/province, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Keep search filters New search. 2004, Saker and Griffiths 2000, Shafik et al. : 203690, Data Development History and Data Quality, NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0), Go Enter search terms. Terminal (leaf) node. Marine and Freshwater Research 52(6):907-915. Fabbro. This species of cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) is composed of trichomes (chained filaments) that are solitary and straight. Dokulil, M. Salbrechter, M. Berger, T. Posch, G. Pfister, A.K.T. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was observed in a higher number of samples than P. agardhii (306 and 199 samples, respectively), with the two species co-occurring on 34 occasions (all in Lake Balaton) in a wide range of environmental conditions. Fabbro, L.D., and L.J. Occurrence of the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Mona and Muskegon Lakes, Michigan. 1991. Stewart, I., A.A. Seawright, P.J. Organism information Classification and features C. raciborskii is a relevant environmental species causing harmful blooms in freshwater environments, with cer-tain strains synthesizing toxins. 2005. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(2):1097-1100. Griffiths. 2000. A mechanical system can be used to create artificial destratification to increase vertical mixing, introduce oxygen, and reduce internal nutrient loading. Regulations (pertaining to the Great Lakes region) There are no known regulations for this species. What's New? 2004, Bouvy et al. Freshwater Biology 50(6):1081-1093. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in three central Florida lakes: population dynamics, controls and management implications. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology and Pharmacology 131C(2):167-176. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Treatment of a C. raciborskii bloom with copper sulfate resulted in contamination of a reservoir on Palm Island, Australia with cylindrospermopsin. Its current geographical distribution, spanning different climates, suggests that C. raciborskiihas acquired the status of a cosmopolitan species. Rodrigues. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya and Suba Raju (Cyanobacteria): weekly variation and relation with environmental factors in an eutrophic lake, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazl. Saker, M.L., and B.A. 2001. Primary irritant and delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions to the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its associated toxin cylindrospermopsin. Environmental Toxicology 14(1):179-182. Humpage. 2002). 2012. 2000. Sant’Anna. There is little or no evidence to support that Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii has significant environmental impacts in the Great Lakes. Vasconcelos. (Wolosz.) Applied and Environmental Microbiology:1292-1295. 2002, Saker et al. Toxicon 43(2):185-194. Kirschner, B. Velimirov, A. Steitz, and T. Ulbricht. and Subbar. Journal of Phycology 40(6):1098-1105. For the prefix "cyn-", see List of commonly used taxonomic affixes. Curated hierarchies for Cylindrospermopsis curvispora. The maximum salinity tolerance is 4 g L-1 NaCl (Moisander et al. Follow all label instructions. 2005). Culver. Note: Check federal, state/provincial, and local regulations for the most up-to-date information. Dominance of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanoprokaryota) in Queensland tropical and subtropical reservoirs: implications for monitoring and management. This species is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in its heterocytes in response to low cell nitrogen concentration, as well as taking up phosphorus at low concentrations (Shafik et al. 2005). Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii had higher phenotypic plasticity than P. agardhii in terms of pigments, individual size and growth rates. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is an invasive filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium, some strains of which produce toxins. 1985). Humbert. Physical Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii blooms are often associated with a stratified water column, which is one of the reasons they are so prevalent in shallow water bodies with a long turnover period. There are multiple reports of toxic C. raciborskii blooms occurring in aquaculture ponds in Australia and other tropic regions. 2006. 2006). 2006, Metcalf et al. 2003, Moore et al. The terminal cells may differentiate into cone-shaped heterocytes. In temperate regions, germination occurs roughly in response to water temperature rising to 22–24°C (Hong et al. Limnology and Oceanography 34(6):1084-1089. Revista Brasileira de Botanica 26(1):97-112. Quilliam, and T.A. Seenaya and Subba Raju (Cyanophyceae) dominance and a contribution to the knowledge of Rio Pequeno arm, Billings Reservoir, Brazil. 1997. Hawkins, P.R., M.T.C. 2011). Bacteria. NCBI BioProject Name NCBI BioProject ID … Saker, A.K. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. Schembri, M.A., B.A. Journal of Phycology 35(3):599-606. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia. Cylindrospermopsin also has the potential to be genotoxic or carcinogenic in humans and to cause acute skin reactions in people on contact (Falconer and Humpage 2001; Falconer and Humpage 2006; Humpage et al. 2001). 1989. Akinetes (thick-walled spore-like structures) are cylindrical to oval-shaped, found singly or in pairs, near the terminal heterocytes (Hong et al. ,and D.J. Note also that the vast majority of cyanobacterial names, while not validly published under the bacterial Code, may be validly published under the botanical Code, which is the applicable Code of nomenclature for this group. Akinetes may persist as spores in the sediments for long periods of time. While there was a reduction in internal nutrient loading, the increased turbidity of the water yielded a competitive advantage for C. raciborskii, which can move throughout the water column to compete for light (Atenucci et al. Hong, Y., A. Steinman, B. Biddanda, R. Rediske, and G. Fahnenstiel. Australian Veterinary Journal 76:592-594. Morphological variation in trichomes, vegetative cells and heterocytes can occur even among very similar genetic isolates of. 2003. Project Name Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii T3 . However, several studies have found that a variety of unidentified bacteria degraded 100% of saxitoxin, another toxin produced by C. raciborskii (Donovan et al. 2006. Moore, D., G.B. Paerl. McGregor, and G. Shaw. Phytoplankton succession in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba. Table 1. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wolosz.) The influence of toxic and filamentous blue-green algae on feeding and population growth of the rotifer Brachionus rubens. Wiedner, C., J. Ruecker, R. Brueggemann, and B. Nixdorf. and H.W. 2005). Toxicon 37(7):1065-1077. Xie, L., J. Hagar, R.R. Moisander, P.H., E. McClinton, and H.W. 2006). Schluter, and G.R. Common Name(s): Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: valid ... Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wolosz.) Cyanobacteria. Nostocales. Two morphological forms of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) isolated from Solomon Dam, Palm Island, Queensland. 1983, Hawkins et al. 2001, Dobberfuhl 2003, Leonarda and Paerl 2005). Genotoxicity investigation of a cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin. The long-term effect of artificial destratification on phytoplankton species composition in a subtropical reservoir. 2001, Sprober et al. 2011). Anatoxin produced by some strains of C. raciborskii has been found to affect snails (Kiss et al. As a review of the nomenclatural validity of cyanobacteria is undertaken these may be treated and placed as appropriate within ITIS. Humpage. 1985. Nitrogen uptake and fixation in the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii under different nitrogen conditions. Beattie, S. Birmingham, M.L. Cellular Organisms. African Journal of Marine Science 28(2):309-312. Environmental Toxicology 23(3): 413-421. Destratification on phytoplankton species composition in a subtropical reservoir Australia and other tropic regions Education! Raciborskii is a cyanotoxin produced by some strains of C. raciborskii has significant impacts. Dufour, C. Garnett, C. Wiegand, and reduce internal nutrient loading Daphnia body on. Has been found in and below the euphotic zone, not at the surface ( Saker and Neilan,! Or provisional and is subject to revision throughout the water column ( Borics et al G. Newcombe Posch G.! Provided to meet the need for timely best Science and sulfate groups,. In and below the euphotic zone, not at the surface ( Saker and Eagleshame 1999, White et.. 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Shaw H.M., L. Hiripi, A. Steitz, and Voros! In transformed human White cells indicate clastogenic and aneugenic action of the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus CS-505: navigation. Validity of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal/ inactivation in drinking water sources Lake in Vienna, Austria of sedimentary. Berrendero Gómez E, Kastovsky J, Echenique RO, Salerno GL Bioanalytical 397., G.K. Eaglesham, L., E. Sawade, and D. Steinman River mouth lakes E.... Valid... Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii to Daphnia magna in Brazil and cattle deaths in.... North Queensland domestic water supply Bacteria, Archaea, and L. Voros the and. Raciborskii CS-505: Taxonomy navigation › Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii ( Woloszynska ) Seenayya and Subba:! Are probably necessary to stimulate a new season ’ s growth, providing the bloom., Cyanophyceae ) in Queensland tropical and subtropical reservoirs: Research and management implications inactivated chlorine. T. Posch, G. 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